Movement and Genre Studies

Development of American Drama after 1945

In the 19th century, the American public was seeking for entertainment rather than art through the American theatre. With the beginning of modernization and strong desires for entertainment, the taste was also rapidly changing. More

Victorian Studies: Introduction

According to George Levine, the writer of this essay, last twenty-five years is a good reference point to restart the interest in "Victorianism". It seems ironical that the left wing scholars are, 'being interested in academy to read Victorian period ...More

Rereading the Victorian Period

There are mainly two aspects to see the Victorian period: The textual, and The ideological. These two aspects are intimately, although sometimes antagonistically, related. These aspects together criticize the conventions of Victorian developments. Th ...More

Shift of Focus on Working Class Ideology

Victorian literature was, indeed, the literature of high and elite class; the age- was marked as the "age of material prosperity". The age was a novel dominated age and the novels were the chief sources of entertainment for high-class people.More

Post-Structural or Deconstructive or Postmodernist Reading of Victorian Novels

During the 1960s and 1970s, the early textual reading had been totally displaced by post-structural, or by reconstructive, or by post-modernist reading, these readings questioned the centrality, closure function of language, the position of an author ...More

Feminist Approach to Victorian Literature

The most important critical development out of Victorianism was feminism. However, Victorian study was not the source of literary feminism, but also it was closely associated with first wave feminism, particularly through the efforts of: Elaine Showa ...More

Mary Poovey’s Contribution in Rereading the Victorian Culture and Literatrue

Mary Poovey emphasizes not only in reading Victorian literature, but also in revising the Victorian culture as a whole. Poovey's Uneven Developments can be taken as the best example, where she has blended feminism, ideology, textualism, and historici ...More

Writing Against the Grain

One of the common features developed in Victorian literature after 1960s share one idea i.e. oppositional idea' or 'oppositional in nature' i.e. the common feature is 'writing against the grain'.More

Marxist Materialism and Romantic Aesthetic

Following the context of materialism, we come to 'a certain unexpected convergence' of linguistic materialism to Marxist materialism. Terry Eagleton finds himself in entire agreement with de Man's view that "aesthetic ideology involves a phenomenalis ...More

Notion of Paul de Man on Romantic Aesthetic

Phenomenology of Hartman shifts to the materiality of Paul de Man, what he calls the "prosaic materiality of the letter" or words which create a question of epistemological uncertainty or in other words, known as the indeterminacy of meaning.More