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Franz Kafka – Biography and Works

Franz Kafka, a Jewish Czechoslovakian who wrote in German, ranks among the twentieth-century’s most acclaimed writers. He is often cited as the author whose works best evoke the bewildering oppressiveness of modern life, and though his writing acco ...More

Thomas Gray – Biography and Works

Thomas Gray was born on 26 December 1716 as the fifth child to Philip Gray and Dorothy Antrobus in Cornhill, London. He was a poet, letter-writer, classical scholar, and professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge. His famous Elegy Written in a Country ...More


Spenser's Idea of Womanhood with Special Reference to Una in The Faerie Queene

Spenser's conception of womanhood is different not only from that prevalent in the Middle Ages, but also from that of his contemporary writers and poets. During the middle ages, the woman was undoubtedly held in esteem, but it was mere show. She was, ...More

Spencer's The Faerie Queene as a Picture Gallery

The Faerie Queene is, in fact, a picture gallery, and Spenser, the poet-painter, has given in it marvelous scenes, palaces caves, fights and journeys that can suitably match any work of a good painter. Spenser, as a word-painter, ranks matchless in t ...More


Themes in Uncle Tom's Cabin

The theme of a novel is the general vision of life or the more explicit proposition about human experience that the literary work conveys. There is a special variety of theme known as a moral, an exhortation to good behavior that may take the form of ...More

Symbols in Uncle Tom's Cabin

Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors which are used to represent abstract ideas or concepts in the literary works. A symbol resembles the allegorical sign only in representing something more than itself. Its relationship to the thing ...More


Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett: A Tragedy

In the tradition of tragedy there is always a profound understanding of suffering and helpless humanity. The tradition continues from the ancient Greeks to the modern playwrights - Luigi Pirandello, Arthur Miller, Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett, ...More

The Theme of Time in Waiting for Godot

In the modern age man has to race hard against time. In an Absurd drama, however, the dramatic Personae are separated from the world, living in no-man's-land. They have shifted from sanity to madness, for no human mind can face squarely the terrible ...More

Short Fiction

The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka: Summary

One of the best known stories The Metamorphosis ranked Franz Kafka; a Czech-born German-Jewish writer one of the most famous story writer who dealt with an issue of existentialism of the twentieth century.More

A Hunger Artist by Franz Kafka: Summary

A Hunger Artist depicts the story of the world famous performer who performed the act of fasting for more than forty days at a time. The story is told from the perspective of unsatisfied, frustrated and alienated protagonist who does so difficult tas ...More


The Timeless World of a Play by Tennessee Williams: Summary

Classical Greek tragedies were really excellent. The actors wore masks, moved like dancers and used highly literary language. The Greek audiences considered all these artificial things quite normal. Perhaps they supposed that the created world of a p ...More

The Timeless World of a Play by Tennessee Williams: Commentary

The Timeless World of a Play by Williams elaborates upon the generally accepted idea that art in any form captures and makes significant action, emotion, or mood 'in a world outside of time'. He pleads for greater understanding and for a recognition ...More

Critical Theory

The Paradox of Acting by Denis Diderot: An Overview

Diderot, in the essay The Paradox of Acting, dismantles the theoretical distinction between poet, actor, work, and audience. They all, for him work for the unity of the whole. Hazard Adams writes 'What the poet experiences and writes about an actor i ...More

Discourse on Art by Sir Joshna Reynolds: An Overview

Sir Joshna Reynolds in 'Discourse on Art' seems to build a principle of aesthetics. He refutes the idea that beauty does not follow rule. Rather he puts emphasis on the principles that make a work of art beautiful, the principles that assist “clear ...More

English Periods

Salient Features of Victorian Literature

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature including poetry of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the ...More

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Literary Terms

Objective Correlative - Literary Term

Objective Correlative is a term popularized by T.S. Eliot in his essay on 'Hamlet and His Problems' to refer to an image, action, or situation – usually a pattern of images, actions, or situations – that somehow evokes a particular emotion from t ...More

Satire - A Literary Art

Satire is a literary art that uses irony, wit and sometimes sarcasm evoking laughter as a powerful weapon against the vices and follies of the humanity for the purpose of reformation through ridicule. Although satire uses comic elements but it differ ...More

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