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John Pepper Clark - Biography and Works

John Pepper Clark was born on 6, April 1935, in Kiagbodo, Nigeria. He is the son of an Ijaw tribal leader Clark Fuludu Bekederemo. Clark got his education from Government College in Ughelli then he got his Bachelor’s degree in English at the Univer ...More

Dennis Joseph Enright - Biography and Works

Dennis Joseph Enright (1920-2002) a British poet, novelist and critic, was born in Royal Leaminton Spa, Warwickshire in 1920 and educated at Leaminton College and Downing College, Cambridge.More


Victorian Consciousness in Tennyson's The Lotos Eaters

The Lotos-Eaters, which describes a scene from the Odyssey (c. 800 b.c.e.) in which Odysseus and his men, after a terrible storm, arrive on the shores of the land of the lotos-eaters, is a poem typical of the Victorian age. It typifies Victorian cons ...More

The Lotos Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson: Summary

Ulysses asked his crew (while returning home from the Trojan War) to be courageous because the land was now in sight. He told his men that the next rising wave would carry them to the seashore in no time. All of them reached the land of the Lotos-Eat ...More


Summary of Frankenstein

The novel opens with the letters written by Robert Walton to his sister in England explaining about his adventurous journey to the north pole. On the way he met another ambitious scientist Victor Frankenstein, who had been too weak to travel due to e ...More

Narrative Technique in Frankenstein

Mary Shelley had many narrative conventions hitherto followed by earlier writers. Jane Austen had written many novels, but the area, she covered was restricted to one or two families. Her realistic mode did not suit Mary Shelly. More


Summary of A Marriage Proposal

Lomov pays a visit to his neighbor, Choobookov. He is wearing a dress-suit. Choobookov expresses a great pleasure. He welcomes him and gives him a warm handshake. But he is surprised to see him in a formal dress, and thinks that perhaps he is on his ...More

Natalia's attitude towards Lomov

Natalia comes to Lomov and is surprised to see him because her father has told her that there is a businessman who has come to buy something. She begs to be excused for wearing an apron and an old dress. She asks if he would like to have something to ...More

Critical Theory

The Poetics of Aristotle Translated and Explained by Lodovico Castelverto

Castelvetro is a good commentator on Aristotle’s poetics. In his treatment of the unity of time, his ideas are more rigid than Aristotle later followed by many neo- classical critics. Aristotle holds that the science, the art and history are not su ...More

The German Ideology by Karl Marx

Marx forwards the key idea that “production of ideas or consciousnesses is directly related to material reality.” Man is the producer of ideas who himself is determined by the material reality. The idea, consciousness can never be other than the ...More

English Periods

Salient Features of Victorian Literature

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature including poetry of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the ...More

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Genre Studies

Victorian Studies: Introduction

According to George Levine, the writer of this essay, last twenty-five years is a good reference point to restart the interest in "Victorianism". It seems ironical that the left wing scholars are, 'being interested in academy to read Victorian period ...More

Rereading the Victorian Period

There are mainly two aspects to see the Victorian period: The textual, and The ideological. These two aspects are intimately, although sometimes antagonistically, related. These aspects together criticize the conventions of Victorian developments. Th ...More

Literary Terms

Mock Epic - Definition of Literary Term

A type of high burlesque, the mock epic is a lengthy poem written in the lofty and exalted style of the epic but that deals with an utterly trivial subject. Mock epics are not generally intended to mock the epic form or style, but rather to mock the ...More

Cavalier Poetry - Definition of Literary Term

The term ‘Cavalier’ or ‘Caroline’ (adjective from “Charles”) is used for a group of mid 17th century poets who sided with King Charles I against the parliament. These Cavalier or Caroline poets were the followers of Ben Johnson, and may p ...More

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