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Gaius Petronius Arbiter - Biography and Works

Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 - 66 A.D) was a Roman writer who is believed to be the author of the Satyricon, a satirical novel written during the Neronian era.More

Black Elk - Biography and Works

Black Elk (1863-1950), a Sioux warrior and priest, was born into the Oglala division of the Teton Dakota. His youth coincided with the last years of territorial freedom for the plains Indians.More


Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes: Summary and Critical Analysis

Ted Hughes' poem 'Hawk Roosting' on its literal level of meaning is an expression of a bird of prey, the hawk, which is sitting on a tree and meditating about its power of destruction, its ability to suppress change, and its conceited arrogance and s ...More

Stylistic Qualities of Hughes' Poetry

Ted Hughes' poetic style is original and he is influenced by Hopkins, Dylan Thomas and Sylvia Plath. His usual tendency is to use tough vocabulary and put words together in an unusual combination.More


The Catcher in the Rye as a Novel of Escape

Holden Caulfield is the representative American postwar hero cast in the image of a New York adolescent coming to terms with a world where everything is 'phony' that makes him 'puke'.More

The Catcher in the Rye as an Autobiographical Novel

The Catcher in the Rye covers two days in the life of its hero, Holden Caulfield after he expelled from Pencey Prep, Pennsylvania. The novel achieved a 'cult' status in the 1950s, had been on Salinger's mind for years before he actually wrote it.More


Detailed Summary of Ibsen's A Doll's House

The total dramatic procedure of A Doll's House takes place in an apartment in a city of Norway. The sitting room of the apartment becomes the focus where everything happens. The play opens in the late afternoon of Christmas Eve. Nora the major chara ...More

Characterization of Mrs. Nora Helmer

Nora is the central character on whom the play revolves around. She is a daughter of a dying person. She is wife to Helmer, a moral orthodox and conventional person. Nora appears from the beginning to the end of the play. In the beginning, she appear ...More

Short Fiction

Clay by James Joyce: Theme

Clay by James Joyce is very highly symbolic story. It shows us a middle-aged woman named Maria and her usual life. Maria is an unmarried woman who lives her life very simply. As her life is a very simple one and as she is unmarried, we can assume tha ...More

Clay by James Joyce: Critical Interpretation

Maria, a female protagonist, in Clay represents a quiet life of a single maid who is famous for her "peace making role" in the laundry. It is a great irony that though she is a great peacemaker in laundry, she has been unable to maintain peace and or ...More


A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift: Critical Commentary

In the prologue of a well-known essay 'A Modest Proposal' Jonathan Swift clarifies his purpose behind writing his proposal. Ireland was a colony under the British Empire. Like other colonies, Ireland was also being exploited badly. Most of the people ...More

Cocksure Women and Hensure Men

Lawrence's "Cocksure Women and Hensure Men" is an argumentative essay which centers round the issue of 'feminism'. The essayist offers an analogy of hen in order to support his claim which he makes throughout the essay.More

Critical Theory

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Commentary

Chinua Achebe in 'Colonialist Criticism' vehemently criticizes the failure of European criticism to understand the African literature on its own terms. He powerfully attacks the sense of superiority found in colonialist critic who sees the African li ...More

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Interpretation

Chinua Achebe maintains that European white critics-scholars can't criticize and interpret the third world African literary works. Although the European critics claim to have thorough knowledge of the African literature, their claim remains to be unr ...More

English Periods

Salient Features of Victorian Literature

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature including poetry of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the ...More

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Literary Terms

Stream of Consciousness Technique - Literary Term

The stream of consciousness technique is a definite mode of writing novels developed in the early twentieth century. We may define stream of consciousness fiction as a type of fiction in which the basic emphasis is placed on the exploration of the pr ...More

The Theatre of the Absurd - Definition of Literary Term

The term 'Theatre of the Absurd' is applied to a number of dramatic works which share the view that the human condition is essentially absurd by which is meant a lack of meaning in life.More

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