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John O'Hara - Biography and Works

John O'Hara (1905-1970) was born on January 31, 1905 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania. He was considered in his day a gifted yet controversial writer of both novels and short stories. He spent time in Pennsylvania in the early part of his childhood until ...More

Ernest Hemingway - Biography and Works

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was born in Oak Park, Illinois. His mother, Grace Hall, whom he never forgave for dressing him as a little girl in his youth, had an operatic career before marrying Dr. Clarence Edmonds Hemingway; he taught his son to lov ...More


Morning Song by Sylvia Plath: Summary

In the first stanza of the poem “Morning Song” by Sylvia Plath, the mother and the narrator narrates the birth of the child. She also hints at how the fetus grew bigger in the womb: “love set you going”. But when the mother actually got the c ...More

Morning Song by Sylvia Plath: Introduction

This is one of Plath’s domestic poems, and not of her typical protest poem; but this poem also has her typical denseness of meaning like other poems. The occasion of the poem is the birth of her first child. The speaker is a woman who has just give ...More


Significance of the Three Scaffold Scenes in The Scarlet Letter

The three scaffold scenes in The Scarlet Letter are integral to the structure and unity of the narrative. They are the most dramatic scenes at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the novel. Artistically and dramatically, these scenes are a ...More

The Scarlet Letter as a Tragic Love Story

Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a good example of a tragic love story that includes the cause and effects of love relationship throughout the entire novel in different modes by depicting the different characters in different positions in ...More


Nora's Identity as a Person in A Doll's House

Nora, the protagonist of Ibsen’s problem play A Doll’s House takes the bold decision to abandon her husband and children at the end of the play not primarily to be free from marital life marked by domination of her husband, but to educate herself ...More

A Doll's House as a Reformist Play

A Doll’s House is a reformist play as it aims at reforming society by ending the inequalities among people and giving them freedom and education for living a life of dignity and independence. Feminism basically means dealing with the issues of fema ...More

Critical Theory

The Poetics of Aristotle Translated and Explained by Lodovico Castelverto

Castelvetro is a good commentator on Aristotle’s poetics. In his treatment of the unity of time, his ideas are more rigid than Aristotle later followed by many neo- classical critics. Aristotle holds that the science, the art and history are not su ...More

The German Ideology by Karl Marx

Marx forwards the key idea that “production of ideas or consciousnesses is directly related to material reality.” Man is the producer of ideas who himself is determined by the material reality. The idea, consciousness can never be other than the ...More

English Periods

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Nineteenth Century Novelist

The nineteenth-century novelists are also known as Victorian novelists and it was considered as the greatest age of English novel. During this period, many famous novelists wrote a number of great novels. Generally the subject matter of the Victorian ...More

Genre Studies

Poetry: Schools of Dissidents

Robert Lowell and John Berryman broke away from the tradition of the 50s and started their own unique technique of writing poetry; several others also revolted and developed their own style.More

Poetry After Modernism

In simple terms, modernism is the name given to the movement which dominates the art and culture of the first half of the 20th century (i.e. 1950). During this movement poet like Eliot with his The Waste Land and Pound with Cantos came up as the ear ...More

Literary Terms

Volta - Definition of Literary Term

Volta is a term which is used in sonnet. It is related with the feeling of the poet in a sonnet. More

Victorian Poetry - Definition of Literary Term

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature (and poetry) of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the mise ...More

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