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Gaius Petronius Arbiter - Biography and Works

Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 - 66 A.D) was a Roman writer who is believed to be the author of the Satyricon, a satirical novel written during the Neronian era.More

Black Elk - Biography and Works

Black Elk (1863-1950), a Sioux warrior and priest, was born into the Oglala division of the Teton Dakota. His youth coincided with the last years of territorial freedom for the plains Indians.More


Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes: Summary and Critical Analysis

Ted Hughes' poem 'Hawk Roosting' on its literal level of meaning is an expression of a bird of prey, the hawk, which is sitting on a tree and meditating about its power of destruction, its ability to suppress change, and its conceited arrogance and s ...More

Stylistic Qualities of Hughes' Poetry

Ted Hughes' poetic style is original and he is influenced by Hopkins, Dylan Thomas and Sylvia Plath. His usual tendency is to use tough vocabulary and put words together in an unusual combination.More


The Tussle between Tradition and Modernization in Hardy's The Mayor of Casterbridge

Industrialization was the greatest achievement in the domains of economy in the 19th century England. The industrialization had been effecting surprising change in every aspect of society. Industrialization had been producing parallel social change a ...More

Symbolism in Hardy's The Mayor of Casterbridge

Movement of plot, the use of symbols and images becomes almost necessary to propel the major theme in the novel. We know Hardy has adopted a third-person omniscient point of view. With the adoption of this third person point of view the writer feels ...More


Detailed Summary of Ibsen's A Doll's House

The total dramatic procedure of A Doll's House takes place in an apartment in a city of Norway. The sitting room of the apartment becomes the focus where everything happens. The play opens in the late afternoon of Christmas Eve. Nora the major chara ...More

Characterization of Mrs. Nora Helmer

Nora is the central character on whom the play revolves around. She is a daughter of a dying person. She is wife to Helmer, a moral orthodox and conventional person. Nora appears from the beginning to the end of the play. In the beginning, she appear ...More

Short Fiction

The Rocking Horse Winner by Lawrence: Critical Commentary

The Rocking Horse Winner first published in 1926 by D.H. Lawrence is considered to be an example of modernist prose. It is his hatred towards growing consumerism, crass materialism and affection-less parenting style of English people.More

The Rocking Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence: Summary

The Rocking Horse Winner recounts the dark tale of young Paul and his cold, socially ambitious mother, a woman whose ruthless pursuit of wealth kills her emotionally, and him literally. Living in a style beyond their means.More


A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift: Critical Commentary

In the prologue of a well-known essay 'A Modest Proposal' Jonathan Swift clarifies his purpose behind writing his proposal. Ireland was a colony under the British Empire. Like other colonies, Ireland was also being exploited badly. Most of the people ...More

Cocksure Women and Hensure Men

Lawrence's "Cocksure Women and Hensure Men" is an argumentative essay which centers round the issue of 'feminism'. The essayist offers an analogy of hen in order to support his claim which he makes throughout the essay.More

Critical Theory

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Commentary

Chinua Achebe in 'Colonialist Criticism' vehemently criticizes the failure of European criticism to understand the African literature on its own terms. He powerfully attacks the sense of superiority found in colonialist critic who sees the African li ...More

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Interpretation

Chinua Achebe maintains that European white critics-scholars can't criticize and interpret the third world African literary works. Although the European critics claim to have thorough knowledge of the African literature, their claim remains to be unr ...More

English Periods

Salient Features of Victorian Literature

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature including poetry of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the ...More

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Literary Terms

The Theatre of the Absurd - Definition of Literary Term

The term 'Theatre of the Absurd' is applied to a number of dramatic works which share the view that the human condition is essentially absurd by which is meant a lack of meaning in life.More

Wit - Definition of Literary Term

Wit is derived from the Old English witan, meaning 'to know,' a term whose meaning has changed several times over the centuries. In the late Middle Ages, wit referred to intellect and intelligence as opposed to knowledge. During the Renaissance, it c ...More

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