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Chinua Achebe - Biography and Works

Chinua Achebe (1930 - 2013), the Nigerian novelist, poet, short story writer and essayist, was educated at Umuchia and Abadan.More

Plato - Biography and Works

Plato (427-347B.C.), an Athenian of the ancient Greece, is the first major figure in the history of Western philosophy who is believed to be one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western intellectual tradition.More


Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes: Summary and Critical Analysis

Ted Hughes' poem 'Hawk Roosting' on its literal level of meaning is an expression of a bird of prey, the hawk, which is sitting on a tree and meditating about its power of destruction, its ability to suppress change, and its conceited arrogance and s ...More

Stylistic Qualities of Hughes' Poetry

Ted Hughes' poetic style is original and he is influenced by Hopkins, Dylan Thomas and Sylvia Plath. His usual tendency is to use tough vocabulary and put words together in an unusual combination.More


Industrial Ugliness and Capitalistic Greed in Hard Times

In Hard Times, Dickens attacks the industrial evils practiced during his days. Coketown represents all industrial towns of red bricks and black soot; there are full of streets and lanes which are monotonously similar; the towns have houses of the sam ...More

The Picture of Victorian Society in Hard Times

Hard Times generally means a period of economic depression with food shortage, low wage and unemployment. Hard Times means a general situation in which the lives of people are restricted. In such situation, people cannot have a free and spontaneous g ...More


Detailed Summary of Ibsen's A Doll's House

The total dramatic procedure of A Doll's House takes place in an apartment in a city of Norway. The sitting room of the apartment becomes the focus where everything happens. The play opens in the late afternoon of Christmas Eve. Nora the major chara ...More

Characterization of Mrs. Nora Helmer

Nora is the central character on whom the play revolves around. She is a daughter of a dying person. She is wife to Helmer, a moral orthodox and conventional person. Nora appears from the beginning to the end of the play. In the beginning, she appear ...More

Short Fiction

Story of Civil Peace by Chinua Achebe

Jonathan Iwegbu counted himself extra-ordinarily lucky. 'Happy survival!' meant so much more to him than just a current fashion of greeting old friends in the first hazy days of peace. It went deep to his heart. He had come out of the war with five i ...More

Civil Peace by Chinua Achebe: Critical Commentary

Civil Peace a war story, based on Nigerian background, presents a difficult situation of people living at the crossroads of life. The central character, Iwegbu, and his wife Maria have four children since one is killed in war. In the beginning, Iwegb ...More


A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift: Critical Commentary

In the prologue of a well-known essay 'A Modest Proposal' Jonathan Swift clarifies his purpose behind writing his proposal. Ireland was a colony under the British Empire. Like other colonies, Ireland was also being exploited badly. Most of the people ...More

Cocksure Women and Hensure Men

Lawrence's "Cocksure Women and Hensure Men" is an argumentative essay which centers round the issue of 'feminism'. The essayist offers an analogy of hen in order to support his claim which he makes throughout the essay.More

Critical Theory

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Commentary

Chinua Achebe in 'Colonialist Criticism' vehemently criticizes the failure of European criticism to understand the African literature on its own terms. He powerfully attacks the sense of superiority found in colonialist critic who sees the African li ...More

Colonialist Criticism by Chinua Achebe: Critical Interpretation

Chinua Achebe maintains that European white critics-scholars can't criticize and interpret the third world African literary works. Although the European critics claim to have thorough knowledge of the African literature, their claim remains to be unr ...More

English Periods

Salient Features of Victorian Literature

The word Victorian suggests a few features of the literature including poetry of the nineteenth century. In poetry and literature, it carries the suggestion of pessimistic subject, elegiac tone, lyrical expression, musical poetry, description of the ...More

Nineteenth Century Prose

With the arrival of romanticism, the nineteenth century prose reached a new stage and became for the first time a literary norm of its own. The essay of this time became highly personal and often whimsical. They also contained the wanderings of the w ...More

Literary Terms

The Theatre of the Absurd - Definition of Literary Term

The term 'Theatre of the Absurd' is applied to a number of dramatic works which share the view that the human condition is essentially absurd by which is meant a lack of meaning in life.More

Wit - Definition of Literary Term

Wit is derived from the Old English witan, meaning 'to know,' a term whose meaning has changed several times over the centuries. In the late Middle Ages, wit referred to intellect and intelligence as opposed to knowledge. During the Renaissance, it c ...More

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